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21 June 2016


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Someone else will have to answer that. I know nothing of Hebrew or Yiddish grammar. pl

Babak Makkinejad

For decades, what is today Afghanistan & Pakistan knew only 2 seasons; Summer and Jihad. During Winter the Muslim armies would march South and East against Hindu Kingdoms of India for booty - women, girls, booy, gold, precious stones, and woods etc. There was a story about a Muslim general who was given an additional number female war booty by the king so that the total number of women he possessed became 1000 and thus he could assume the Military title of "Amir Tooman" - Master of a Thousand.

That was the case also in what became Prussia - the Germanic Christian Knights attacking pagan Peruthuria over many centuries - killing the adult men and selling the women and children into slavery in Rome. Perthurians became extinct and the German Knights assumed their name and became Prussians.

Ottoman expansion was always a religious project and I do not see there being any qualitative difference between them and the Christian Crusaders. And the resentment and fear of the Turko-Islamic element is an abiding feature of Romania (If I am not mistaken, only the Bessarabia part was never subject of Turkish Power), Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece.

Babak Makkinejad

This absence of sense of Order of Events - Time - was also noted in Navajo language - please see:






Hebrew has a past tense. And a future and present.

Off topic, I recommend the Austrian Hospice as a quiet place for coffee or bier while roaming the Old City. Ditto Col. Lang's recommendation of the American Colony Hotel. Worth a look-in for a meal if you cannot afford the room rate.

Babak Makkinejad

Ancient (Biblical) Hebrew or the Modern one which was created in Europe?


It is off topic, but after carefully reading the comment,i.e. response to Professor Deeb's article, I have to write it - Colonel Lang, you truly are an erudite.


Thank you for the explanation.

It's a little strange, on further reflection, that I should think that strange: people with Italian (or related) ancestry are all over Eastern Mediterranean, for example--no reason to think that it should be otherwise for the Levant. Still, it seemed a bit odd that, for all the talk of Crusader brutality and "war between civilization," the East and West did seem to mix reasonably well and amicably in the region.



thanks. It cost me. the idea of a soldier/scholar was unacceptable to many. pl


Chinese doesn't have tenses (at least in the sense used in European languages). Curious if anyone said the same about the Chinese and their sense of time.


Good question. I can only speak for modern Hebrew. You likely know more about the language than I but I would caution against an over attribution to Europe. Yes, Hebrew's rebirth was conscious/intentional. Still, most ashkenazi and ashkenazi Americans are much more comfortable in Yiddish than Hebrew. It's become a thoroughly Israeli language.

Babak Makkinejad

Right, and my Chinese friends speculate that prevented the emergence of empirical sciences in China.

Babak Makkinejad

Persian changed under the influence of translators from English, French and German into Persian - and new compound tenses were create; I wondered if the creators of Modern Hebrew also did the same thing.


Tuman = 10,000 (W. W. Barthold, Tuman, EI1 IV (1934), p. 905-6)

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