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This article is about the country. For other uses, see Cuba (disambiguation).

Republic of Cuba

República de Cuba (Spanish)

Five horizontal stripes: three blue and two white. A red equilateral triangle at the left of the flag, partly covering the stripes, with a white five pointed star in the centre of the triangle. A shield in front of a fasces crowned by the Phrygian Cap, all supported by an oak branch and a laurel wreath
Flag Coat of arms

Motto: "¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!" (Spanish)
"Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!"[1]
Anthem: La Bayamesa
Bayamo Song [2]

Location of Cuba (green)

and largest city Havana
23°8′N 82°23′W

Official languages
Ethnic groups (2012[3])
64.1% White
26.6% Mulatto / Mestizo
9.3% Black


Marxist-Leninist single-party state
- President Raúl Castro
- First Vice President Miguel Díaz-Canel[4]
President of the
National Assembly
Esteban Lazo Hernández

National Assembly

Independence from Spain

- War of Independence February 24, 1895
- Recognized December 10, 1898
- Republic declared May 20, 1902
- Cuban Revolution July 26, 1953 - January 1, 1959
- Current constitution February 24, 1976


- Total 109,884 km2 (106th)
42,426 sq mi
- Water (%) negligible[5]


- 2012 census 11,167,325[6]
- Density 102/km2 (106th)
264.0/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
- Total $212 billion[7] (58th)
- Per capita $18,796 (2011)[8] (60th)
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
- Total $71.017 billion[9] (68th)
- Per capita $6,301[10] (90th)
Gini (2000) 38.0[11]
HDI (2013) Steady 0.815[12]
very high · 44th


Peso (CUP)
Convertible pesoa

Time zone
- Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−4)

Drives on the

Calling code

ISO 3166 code

Internet TLD
a. From 1993 to 2004, the United States dollar was used alongside the peso until the dollar was replaced by the convertible peso.

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba (Listeni/ˈkjuːbə/; Spanish: República de Cuba, pronounced: [reˈpuβlika ðe ˈkuβa] ( listen)), is an island country in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba comprises the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos. Havana is the capital of Cuba and its largest city. The second-largest city is Santiago de Cuba.[13][14][15] To the north of Cuba lies the United States (150 km or 93 mi away), the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands are to the northeast, Mexico is to the west (210 km or 130 mi away), the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are to the south and Haiti and the Dominican Republic are to the southeast.

The island of Cuba was inhabited by numerous Mesoamerican tribes prior to the landing of explorer Christopher Columbus in 1492, who claimed it for the Kingdom of Spain. Cuba remained a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, after which it was briefly administered by the United States until gaining nominal independence in 1902. The fragile republic endured increasingly radical politics and social strife, and despite efforts to strengthen its democratic system, Cuba came under the dictatorship of former president Fulgencio Batista in 1952.[16][17][18] Growing unrest and instability led to Batista's ousting in January 1959 by the July 26 movement, which afterwards established a government under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965 the country has been governed as a single-party state by the Communist Party.

Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean, and with over 11 million inhabitants, is the second-most populous after Hispaniola, albeit with a much lower population density than most nations in the region. It is a multiethnic country whose people, culture and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves, a close relationship with the Soviet Union during the Cold War, and proximity to the United States.

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