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13 July 2011

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Norbert M Salamon

A rational analysis of the USA' present federal goverment's financial situation by the author of

shadowstat.com

fully justifying Babak Makkinejad's judgement that the debt can not be repaid [USA only in this case]

approx 38 min


http://www.financialsense.com/financial-sense-newshour/guest-expert/2011/07/14/john-williams/the-road-to-hyperinflation-2014

Walrus

Babak:

"Walrus & J:

The Catholic Church, with all its venality and corruption, did not setup death camps and concentration camps in order to achieve Paradise on Earth.

Those who went against the Church did not usher in a qualitatively superior system of Laws and Governance - only a more efficient one.

And now we find ourselves that the secular rulers on a number of states have the power at their disposal to annihilate all life on this planet.

Perhaps you find this state of affairs superior to the situation in Europe in the 14-th century.
"

I find the current state of affairs to be infinitely superior to the Fourteenth century, and judging by the number of refugees who risk death to enter notionally humanist free market countries, most people would agree with me.

To put it another way, I don't see boatloads of refugees trying to enter Saudi Arabia, Iran or Afghanistan. The Western humanist economies are not perfect, in fact humanism specifically acknowledges its imperfections by its commandment to experimentation and the Scientific method. That is why De Tocqueville called America "the great experiment" - it is grounded in secular humanism.

To put it yet another way; Humanism asserts that it is possible for humans to organise themselves to increase their common good. The Catholic Church specifically denied this - "Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus", as do the mullahs today.

The only difference is that the Catholic Church laid down its arms at the treaty of Westphalia in 1648 after at least Eighty years of bloodshed.

As for "Concentration camps", had an industrial economy existed at the time of the Reformation, I'm sure that the Catholic Church would have availed itself of those wonderful enabling technologies: railways, machine guns and barbed wire.

Fortunately, or unfortunately depending on your viewpoint, the Church had to operate a distributed system for terrorising its population because that was the way much of the economy worked in those days. No Zyclon B and crematoriums. they preferred the executioners axe and burning at the stake in the town square. Today the Mullahs prefer the AK47 and the IED.

You may wish to speculate if Hitlers final solution would have succeeded in the age of Facebook and Twitter. - "# Why are they trying to round us up?"

elkern

I think the Isr/Pal conflict is more ethnic than religious - and therefore worse. Tribal war has ecological roots, deep roots in the lizard-brain: kill the Other before the Other kills you. Survival or extinction, the dark side of Darwin.

It's a cryin' shame that this ancient - and apparently not yet obsolete - truth is locked into the Old Testament/Torah.

The Quran may be full of Old-Testament-style Law, but Islam is more like Christianity in (theoretically, at least) accepting people of any ethnicity as long as they proclaim the faith.

Palestinian resistance to Israel was originally much more Ethnic (Arab, PLO, Fatah) than religious. The failure of the western political approach (PLO, like Baathism, was socialist & nationalist, both european constructs, no?) opened the door for the return to traditional modes of behavior - Islam (Hamas, Hezbolah).

I've read allegations that Israel/Mossad encouraged the fledgling Hamas to undermine Fatah. Oops.

Islam does seem to endow the Ummah with properties historically associated with Tribes (or later "Nations") - in particular, authorizing war & killing for collective defense.

Religion is a force-multiplier more than a cause of war.

elkern

PS: please pardon & correct my lousy Arabic spelling. But don't touch my English typos!

Babak Makkinejad

Walrus:

I think it irrelevant to bring up people who sought refuge in Iran or in Saudi Ararbia.

For the record, I observe that almost all of the 120,000 or so Armenians in Iran are descendants of those who sought refuge in Iran during and after 1905 massacares.

To that must be added the Polish refugees during WWII.

Furthermore, we have this:

For 2 decades, from 1980 to 2001, the Islamic Republic of Iran had accepted the largest number of refugees - both in relative and in absolute terms - than any other state in the world.

Even now, the Islamic Republic of Iran is the second highest such state in the world.

I should think this is a much better record that the Humanistic Australians who deport even children.

Be as it may, I would like to state that I agree with the "Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus" - Americans call it Murphy's Law - everything that can go wrong, will go wrong. Clearly, there is a limit to how well things could be made on this planet - there are also limit to empirical and philosophical knowledge. All of this is also known as "The Fall of Man".

You also have stated: "I'm sure that the Catholic Church would have availed itself of those wonderful enabling technologies: railways, machine guns and barbed wire.".

What are your justifications for this assertion except extreme prejudice?

Babak Makkinejad

elkern:

You wrote:"Palestinian resistance to Israel was originally much more Ethnic (Arab, PLO, Fatah) than religious. The failure of the western political approach (PLO, like Baathism, was socialist & nationalist, both european constructs, no?) opened the door for the return to traditional modes of behavior - Islam (Hamas, Hezbolah)."

I agree with you.

Specifically about the Shia of Lebanon, I recall how before the rise of Hizbullah, Nabih Berri (sic?) - the leader of Amal - was reaching out to US to no avail.

Walrus

Babak:

"You also have stated: "I'm sure that the Catholic Church would have availed itself of those wonderful enabling technologies: railways, machine guns and barbed wire.".

What are your justifications for this assertion except extreme prejudice?"

I think you misunderstand me.The Catholic Church militant surrendered at the treaty of Westphalia in 1648.

Prior to that it fought mostly by proxy, Eighty years of extremely bloody wars in support of a counter reformation to suppress the Protestant churches, or rather the alternative centres of power North of the Alps that protestantism facilitated.

The military and judicial techniques it used at the time were "state of the art" for that period, including torture, public execution and what we would term cruel and unusual punishment - burning alive, burial alive, etc.

This is a matter of public record, not "extreme prejudice". It therefore incontrovertible that if the same Nineteenth and Twentieth century industrial implements were available to the Catholic Church - the machine gun, barbed wire and the railway, then they would have employed them in their wars.

Given the intellectual contortions the Church at the time used to justify its treatment of Protestants -(that they were already as good as dead since they were outside the Catholic church, so a tortured confession was actually beneficial to their souls), it is hard to understand why The Church would NOT have used concentration camps had the opportunity arisen - and they wouldn't have done it in secret after a Wannsee Conference either, but with published carefully reasoned intellectually impeccable justification for their holy work.

But this is thread drift, my contention is that Islam is undergoing a reformation and the forces of counter reformation are fighting us as the proximate cause of their troubles - our spreading of Western communication technology and the access to information that it brings. What do you think facilitated the Arab Spring? Shouldn't we be doing our level best to help the Islamic reformation? WHere is our Wilton centre? Who is searching for the Islamic Adenauer and Schumacher?

Babak Makkinejad

Walrus:

Thank you for your comments and clarifications.

I completely disagree with your contention that "...Islam is undergoing a reformation...". For one, in my opinion, it is an inapplicable projection of the Christian history as being normative unto Islam

Secondly, and more importantly, I do not see any one standing for this so-called "Muslim Reformation" except the neo-Salafi Jihadist who reject both Authority and Tradition in the interpretation of the Quran.

Whom do you consider to intellectually represent this Islamic Reformation: who are the contemporary Muslim analogues of Luther, Calvin, and Henry VIII in your opinion?

LeaNder

Walrus, intially I had the same impulse as you. At least on German ground it ultimately was all about power/hegemony and religion was misused (that's important) to that end.

But now I really start to wonder. I won't go into the German 30 years war (why 70?) yes, only on the surface it was a religious war - cuius regio eius religio:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuius_regio,_eius_religio

yes, it was about hegemony. ...

But how do you manage to move from the 17th without any stop to the 19th century? Bismarck,if we stay on German ground--you brought up the number 1648 - had problems with two main groups, the socialists and the Catholics and thought he needed laws against both. He surely was paranoid about the influence of the Pope on Prussian politics. What does that show us besides that the authoritarians (Bismarck) treasure the "capability" of the Church to lead the masses according to their designs? ... So they better suspect others know that too.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_von_Bismarck#Anti-Catholic_Kulturkampf

Let me pick up Babak's hint at prejudice: how do you explain that the Protestants were among the most fierce and most late witch hunters,

sorry German: the witch hamlet (Hexennest) Lemgo, a Protestant town:
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemgo#Reformation_und_Hexenverfolgung

and were also "the religion"--if you want to look at it that way--that voted Hitler into power? Already before the Nazis seizure of power thy founded the "'German' Christians" in 1931, sorry there is no Catholic equivalent:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Christians

Since you bring up the idea that the Catholics:

"Catholic church, so a tortured confession was actually beneficial to their souls), it is hard to understand why The Church would NOT have used concentration camps had the opportunity arisen - and they wouldn't have done it in secret after a Wannsee Conference either, but with published carefully reasoned intellectually impeccable justification for their holy work."

Facts matter.

Walrus

Babak, Col. Lang may wish to expand on this subject, but Islam is not organised like Christianity with a series of "Heads".

I would have thought the leaders of the Islamic spring movements would satisfy your query, as would the Muslim Councils of Great Britain and many other countries, you might also look to Dr. Yusuf_al-Qaradawi and many others.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yusuf_al-Qaradawi

When I talk about "reformation" I mean it. The reaction of muslim women and men to truthful information about Western civilisation has to be seen to be believed and is EXACTLY on a par with the reaction of those small Three to Six person bible study groups in the Netherlands who gathered in secret to read the bible in the vernacular for the first time.

To put it another way; don't you understand that the protests and movement regarding women driving cars in Saudi Arabia is a direct action against religious fanatacism, aided and abetted by Saudi womens knowledge of the West? It is thousands of actions like these taken together that are the reformation, exactly as the Christian Reformation started as thousands of acts of similar civil disobedience against Canon law.

http://www.saudiwomendriving.blogspot.com/

Please bear in mind that Zionists have a huge interest in demonising Islam and preventing any meaningful engagement with Islam, let alone supporting or fostering the growth of moderate Islamic movements.

America and the West knows exactly how to both engage and foster Islamic moderation and reformation as well as frustrate the hardliners - we did it to communism starting in late 1945 in what was to become Western Germany by identifying leaders sympathetic to our worldview and supporting them and their nascent political parties.(hence my reference to Adenauer).

We continued this process through the creation of hundreds of scholarships, travel funds, fellowships endowments and think tanks aimed at supporting and fostereing anti communist free market ideas among Eastern Bloc Academics and teachers.

We ran a massive radio, TV (later) and print propaganda campaign with the objective of promoting free market democratic ideals and contrasting them with communist stereotypes.

Our foreign policies were careful (in eastern Europe) not to compromise our public relations efforts.


So where was the wakeup call after the first WTC bombing that we had a problem with radical Islam that needed a multi pronged approach to its neutralisation - including a solid propaganda campaign aimed at cutting off community support for its methods and aspirations? It was nowhere to be seen.

Instead we got the radical Jewish "Kill em all and let God sort them out" rhetoric that we still get to this very day.

I live next door to Indonesia, the largest Muslim nation. I, and many other Australians have traveled extensively through its length and breadth for Forty years or more. It is basically peaceful and easy going. The beer is good, the women are unveiled and participate in all parts of society and the economy, the natives are friendly.

I deeply resent efforts by know nothing ideologues to not only paint folk like these as inhuman fanatics, but who actively foment discord and trouble between the West and Islam for the rotten and dishonest purpose of promoting Israels interests.

Babak Makkinejad


You have declined to answer my question in specificity; instead you have invoked the generic abstract Muslim living among Christians has the harbinger of the Muslim Reformation – which in itself a notion suffering from fallacy of the universalism of the Euro-Christian history. Therefore, I do not find your reasoning persuasive.

Furthermore, you have declined to respond to my stated claim that the analogues of the Christian Protestants are the neo-Salafi Jihadists in their disregard for both Authority & Tradition.

Thirdly, your question “don't you understand that the protests and movement regarding women driving cars in Saudi Arabia is a direct action against religious fanaticism, aided and abetted by Saudi women’s knowledge of the West?” is not understood by me as such.

Women have been driving in Indonesia, Iran, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria and elsewhere for decades. Saudi Women do not need to learn of that possibility from the Western people. And going against Muslim obscurantism of Saudi Arabia does not a Reformation make; in my judgment.

The actions of Saudi women are not analogues of the Christian Reformation since per your own observation; there is no Central Authority to challenge. What can be challenged in Islam is the Islamic Law. But then the actual place that Islamic Law is being systematically challenged and altered is the Islamic Republic of Iran where the theoretical & institutional foundations of which was laid down by that bête noir of secularists everywhere, the late Ayatollah Khomeini.

I do not know what to say to the hubristic statement:

“America and the West knows exactly how to both engage and foster Islamic moderation and reformation as well as frustrate the hardliners - we did it to communism starting in late 1945 in what was to become Western Germany by identifying leaders sympathetic to our worldview and supporting them and their nascent political parties.”.
How can that be so by a bunch of Euro-Americans in their post-Christian phase with no sympathy for Islam?
Very many of these peaceful Indonesians will not answer “al Salam Aleikum” uttered by you or other non-Muslims. Try it next time you are there. And again, why do you care about status of women among Muslims? I mean, there is forced Temple Prostitution of orphaned (and not so orphaned) Dalit girls all over India; something that has not existed in the Near East for at least 1700 years. Why don’t you champion their cause?

I state my opinion it for the record here: the possibility and actuality of real reform (but not Reformation) in Islam can only be found in the works of the late Allameh Tabatabaie and the late Ayatollah Khomeini; 2 Shia Iranians. If there are others outside of them, I am unaware of them.

Israelis have taken upon themselves the Mantle of Enemy of Islam, it seems to me. The assorted protestant Christian sects – enamored of the ideas of Ancient Israel – seem to be their fellow-travellers and enablers. You cannot put this down just on Israelis and their Jewish partisans. And, no doubt, there is also residual mutual prejudice and hostility dating back to the emergence of Islam.

J

Babak,

It's like the question posed by Rodney King 'Why can't we all get along?'. We as a species are soo full of our own shit, we slosh when we walk, wouldn't you agree? A good enema is needed for mankind as a whole, maybe then, maybe just then the 'crap-head effect' that we see happening in so many places will cease. It's just sooo pathetic isn't it?

Dan Gackle

Babak:

"the actual place that Islamic Law is being systematically challenged and altered is the Islamic Republic of Iran"

This comes as a surprise to those of us who have viewed the Iranian regime as fundamentalist and atavistic. Can you explain in more detail? Does it stem from the Shia/Sunni distinction?

MRW

Babak at 14 July 2011 at 01:14 PM

The 220 trillion dollars (more recent estimates put it at over 500 trillion with outstanding CDS) you seem to assign as the world’s debt is anything but.

That amount is not the world of retirees and the savers world-wide, or of the value of a nation’s hard assets. It is the universe of people who bet on those sums going up or down—and they bet pennies on the future dollar—and because of Glass-Steagall being repealed (1999) they were able to get themselves insinuted into general revenues (roughly speaking) and stick their palms out in Sept 2008 when no one understood what was happening in order to recoup some of their betting losses.

Let me try to give you a simple example. Imagine Vegas. It has the Strip and casinos. People fly in and gamble. Some win. Some lose. It’s a contained racket. Some guy can drop $4 million and lose it all, but he goes to the airport penniless. He can’t go to City Hall and be made whole because of who he is, or because he bet his company funds and blew it and must be made whole again because his company in Ohio or China is too big to fail.

Imagine then that a bunch of whales (as the heavy hitters are called) and casino owners got together and convinced the Mayor of Las Vegas to break down that wall between the casinos and the residents of Vegas. They rigged up a deal where the whales were able to borrow from local bank funds for their bets, and the argument was that since these were such sophisticated gamblers no one should worry, the money would get back there, and the casinos promised to back any losses to the local banks by keeping an eye on their bets (self-regulation and all). The argument for doing it was to have ready access to a larger pool of money and not cause the whales to have to fly back home to get more, or wait X hours for the banks where they lived to open up. You know, convenience.

But one night, reckless whales in 10 different casinos were on a roll, staking themselves increasingly higher major bets along with owners of the house and they figured out what if they bet with the house against other casinos. Sort of mega-bets. It was getting wild. Then disaster struck. Five lost, and the casinos with them, who employed half the service people in Vegas. Jobs. Those casinos couldn’t cover the nut. They woke the Mayor up and emptied the coffers. The losing casinos reined in their recklessness, fired half their staff, and the residents faced failing banks.

[A much better and more detailed and even simpler explanation is in this This American Life radio show: http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/365/another-frightening-show-about-the-economy]
That’s what you’re describing.

That gambling debt should have been isolated in late September 2008. It wasn’t. Obama, Summers, and Geithner haven’t done it.

Unless regular people understand how this works—and don’t ever buy the bullshit that it’s too exotic to understand or that only PhDs in economics can grasp it…just listen to the radio show I link to: some of the guys who created the financial programs used explain it in simple terms….until regular people understand how it works, they can’t demand the remedy that should be applied.

These gamblers need to take a big haircut after we get our stuff protected. They’re the ones who claim to understand risk management, and who set the entry fee for doing it at millions. (Ordinary mortals like you and I can’t put up $10,000 to get a possible $1 million return, we're not allowed in the club.) Well, manage it on your own dime.

We need those funds bifurcated now--Yves Smith and Dr. Bill Black have been hounding people about this--or the gamblers should face shorthair regulation like an old-fashioned utility. That’s the issue. Don't ever, ever accept that those gambling debts are an acceptable financial instrument of a nation's general revenues.

MRW

Babak:

Just to make sure I’m absolutely clear. Assuming your figures: the difference between global savings of 148 trillion dollars and the $220 trillion of outstanding “debt” is $72 trillion.

$72 trillion is not an amount that anyone has put up or invested, or lent out to businesses. It it the full value of the CDS (etc) contracts (bets) for which the gamblers put up 1%, 2%, 3%, or maybe max, in some cases, 10%—hedging either up or down—which means actual cash outlay to get that contract money is somewhere between $720 billion and $7.2 trillion globally.

The gamblers stand to make the $72 trillion. If they lose because of the lack of any regulatory structure in place right now that protects global savings and assets, they can come crawling back to governments and wring it out of them.

This is what Greenspan, Rubin, Summers, and Levitt put in place. Levitt had the good sense and grace to recognize he was led down the garden path on derivatives, and was near tears in October 2008 on a radio show I heard, his remorse was palpable, when he described the day (1996) the four of them talked Clinton into not regulating derivatives as “the worse day of my life.”

Greenspan, Rubin, and Summers should be in jail. If this were China, they would be shot.

Greenspan, Rubin, and Summers knew what they were doing. They knew the risks.

They engineered a 262-page addendum onto the 11,000-page budget submitted Dec 15, 2000, the last congressional day of the Clinton admin in which they made it illegal to regulate derivatives. And that know-nothing punk financial blogger for the Washington Post, Ezra Klein, had the temerity to suggest that all these titans could be excused because they didn’t know. (He dissed the movie Inside Job. As Yves Smith’s post on it was titled, “Ezra Klein Should Stick to Being Wrong About Health Care.”)

Babak Makkinejad

MRW:

Thank you for your comments.

The 220 trillion dollars figure is my rough estimate of the amount of financial instruments created by the financial sectors of US, UK, and a few like-minded states that is not backed-up by the real economy of the world.

I arrived at that figure after subtracting the global savings (from a much larger figure).

This figure does not include public, personal, and corporate debts.

It might be that the 700 trillion dollar figure it the total debt of the world.

I do not have any issues with your posts, I am in general agreement.

I just do not know how much of this toxic/exotic debt is not insiniuated itselves in pension plans world-wide.

Yes, the investors and the gamblers have to get a hair cut but how?

And you won't get any arguments out of me regarding the Glass-Stegall Act.

I was aware of that very many observers, from the socialist Paul Sweezy (who used your exact word "gambling" to describe US capital markets) to conservative Patrick Buchanan inveighing against the (cancerous) growth of US Financial sector and its machinations to no avail.

If your read "The Gentleman from Krakow" short story by Issac Besheever Singer you will see much of the mentality leading to the present situation described there.

What do you suggest for the method of bifurcation?

Babak Makkinejad

Dan Gackle:

I think if you look at the Shia Doctrine of Ijtihad ("Innovation") you can see how it was the progenitor of the Expediency Council in the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the duty to adjudicate the conflicts between the Guardian Council (of the Constitution) and the Majlis (Parliament).

For often, the Guardian Council oppose the legislation due to what its member judge to be items opposed to the Islamic Law.

That is when the Expediency Council comes in and decides/adjudicates - based on the expediency of the state's needs - between the two.

This goes to Ayatollah Khomeini's observation that the survival of the Islamic Order supersedes this or that article of Islamic Law.

I think in addition to the contributions of the Expediency Council, there are also changes made to old articles of Islamic Law (due to changes circumstances) by the Parliament. For example, a few years ago, the Blood Money of Religious Minorities was equalized with that of Muslims. The argument was based on a complicated chain of reasoning and precedence - all within the Islamic Tradition - which broke with 1400 years of common practice - at least in this instance.

Walrus

Babak, you act as if the Christian Reformation was a childrens story book with a beginning, middle and end. It was no such thing.

The Arab spring, the Saudi womens driving protests, the demonstrations and unrest in Iran, Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt are all completely consistent with a sea change in the local views of both spiritual and temporal power. That is what "Reformation" is - giving oneself permission to conceive of a different arrangement of powers within ones universe. Nothing is static and information technology is the current enabler. Surely you understand the already demonstrated power of Twitter, Facebook and Google?

Be warned that the same thing is happening in Israel and in the Jewish diaspora - read your Peter Beinart in the New York Review Of Books.

Babak Makkinejad

Walrus:

I respectfully complelety disagree.

But future would tell.

MRW

Babak,

I’m doing this fast because I’m getting the evil eye here for being on the computer too long. ;-)

You wrote, “I just do not know how much of this toxic/exotic debt is not insiniuated itselves in pension plans world-wide.”

Yup. That’s the standing argument. That’s when they start waving their hands around. That’s what Greenspan, Rubin, Summers, and Levitt did to Clinton in 1996. It’s a subset of the too-big-to-fail argument.

The answer is: the bets have to be undone. I’m not talking about pension investments in stocks, etc. But the unregulated bets. Those are identifiable, although not known to anyone but the players; hence, the danger.

But you and I know they won’t do it. They would rather take ZERO should this blow up. And since our real derivatives exposure every night is over $500 trillion right now. Every night. There’s a chance.

“What do you suggest for the method of bifurcation?”

Start letting the bright women run the economy. I don’t have time to find the link right now but there was a website called wowwow.com or something like that. It was a Daily Beast news site about accomplished women, although you never knew it unless you read About. Lasted two years. They did a spectacular piece entitled ‘Four Women of the Apocalypse’, or thereabouts. Written in late 2008.
Found it: http://www.politicalgroove.com/showthread.php?11297-Four-Women-Who-Warned-of-the-Financial-Collapse&s=362e1caf31fe4e1dd4a22c5d910ae4aa

These were the four women who saw the Sept 2008 crisis coming starting mid-90s. One is dead (early cancer). All were threatened. One was Brooksley Born, the woman Greenspan, Rubin, and Summers discredited and ran out of town. ("Inside Job" covered her.) She got death threats.

Elizabeth Warren should have been appointed. Geithner, that little prick—another who should be shamed and out of business—killed her appointment. Although, if Obama had any balls he’d do a recess appointment. Instead, he’s running the economy like 1937/38 never existed as a mirror.

Concurrent with that, someone has to let Br. Bill Black (William H, I think) investigate the financial crisis the way he did the S&L.

The issue is: the PUBLIC has to understand the issue. None of these ‘I’ve-got-mine-I’m-leaving’ types are going to do it. The bifurcation has to happen in the US financial system. Now.

I don't buy the 'we can't bring back Glass-Steagall' BS.

MRW

I am composing an answer to Walrus about Sale's article because I think Walrus missed the nuances of Sale's piece. Sale's fourth paragraph is brilliant. Once I'm finished with the endless honey-do's, I'll try to post.

LeaNder

"The dominant group usually tends to freeze a situation effectively because that group almost always takes refuge in legalism"

Legalism feels like a helpful term. That's why this passage startled me. It reminded me of my early clashes with the most prominent Hasbara on Mondoweiss. If necessary Israel even uses Ottoman laws if they are helpful. But yes, you can argue all this is "legal", Israel is a law abiding country, while the ("so-called) Occupied Territories are a lawless place.

Legalism in action:
http://mondoweiss.net/2011/07/boiling-the-frog-every-week-another-israeli-annexation-bill.html

Thanks Richard Sale.

Hmm, I didn't know:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legalism_%28theology%29#Protestant_churches

In German justificatio (L) = Rechtfertigungslehre.

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