The first time was n the 1840s, the second in 1879. Earlier that year the British had negotiated the "Treaty of Gandamak" with the Afghan government. The principal negotiator had been Major Sir Louis Cavagnari. As a result of the treaty the British were allowed to maintain a "residence" in Kabul. This was an embassy in all but name. Cavagnari was made "resident." The British/Afghan relationship did not prosper. The Afghans bitterly resented the presence of this infidel establishment in their midst. The "residence" had a guard made up of a company sized force of the "Guides," perhaps the most distinguished of all Indian Army regiments. Made up of both infantry and cavalry the "Guides" were a mixed force in terms of ethnicity and religion. This was unusual and the Afghans hated the Sikh and Hindu members of the residency guard.
One day, the whole precarious structure of security cam crashing down when a Kabul mob formed over some slight or grievance and after a days fighting over ran the residency having killed Cavagnari and the Guides, every man.
The picture is of a monument to the courage of the Guides at the Kabul Residency.